ESP The 25th Young Scholars’ Workshop
Date: Wednesday, October 18, 2017
Time: 12:30 – 14:00
Venue: GRIPS 4th floor, 4B
Presenter: Mr. Fabien MAJORO
Affiliation: Ph. D. Student, GRIPS/C-Cube Program
Evaluation of the effectiveness of economic sanctions: case of Rwanda vs. conflict minerals provision
Literature has extensively discussed economic sanctions and their effectiveness. However, scholarship on conditions for sanctions effectiveness has mainly focused on economic vulnerability of the receiving state. Economic sanctions having the objective of inducing political behavior change for the receiver by imposing economic pain, the emphasis on economic vulnerability explains why economic sanctions generally fail. To explain this failure, some scholars have argued that economic sanctions work better in democracies and friendly countries to the levying state. This paper focuses on the internal predisposition of the receiving state and argues that in addition to vulnerability and other determinants of sanctions’ effectiveness, a state is more likely to comply with economic sanctions and implement actions leading to sanctions’ effectiveness if there is a prior domestic policy environment that is favorable to the implementation. The analysis of the case of Rwanda shows that Rwanda complied with the conflict minerals requirement because it had already embarked on mining policy reforms to increase transparence within the sector, and this is in line with conflict minerals provision requirement. Whereas these reforms were lagging behind due to some vested interests, the adoption of Dodd-Frank effects created pressure to policy makers and providers in the sector to do something to salvage the sector and gave the needed momentum to the government and other stakeholders to push through the reforms and initiate other policy measures that aimed at satisfying the requirement of Section 1502 of Dodd-Frank that creates the conflict minerals but also streamlined Rwanda mining sector.